1. What is the Earth made of?
1.1 The structure of the Earth
The Earth is divided into layers:
The crust is surface layer. It is a thin, solid layer made of rock.
The mantle is the intermediate layer. This layer is almost 85% of the Earth's volume.
It includes magma, which is molten rock.
The core is the deepest layer. The core is part solid and part liquid.
The Earth's temperature increase with depth. The temperature in the core reaches about 4.500º C.
The Earth's crust has a solid part ( continents) and liquid part (oceans)
The continents are large land masses, surrounded by oceans and seas . There are six continents . In order of size , they are Asia, America, Africa, Antarctica, Europe and Oceania.
Oceans are large masses of salt water. There are five oceans. In order of size, they are the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian, the Southern and the Arctic.
The Earth´s crust is divided into different places called tectonic plates. These plates are in continuous movement. They move slowly at a speed of two to ten centimetres per year. Some plates move apart , while others collide. The collision of plates has produced many mountains.